Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia




Schizophrenia

 Schizophreniarr is a psychological disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality (psychosis.)

, hallucinations (hearing unreal voices), belief in false beliefs (delusions), abnormal thinking and behavior, lack of expression of emotions, impaired motivation and motivation, low mental functions (cognition), and problems with daily functioning, including work, social relationships, and personal self-care.

Schizophrenia is likely caused by genetic and environmental factors.

Patients may have a variety of symptoms, ranging from strange behaviors, behavioral distractions, confused speech, to loss of emotion, little or no speech, and inability to concentrate and remember.

The doctor diagnoses schizophrenia based on the symptoms and results of the tests performed to rule out other possible causes.

Treatment includes antipsychotic drugs, training programs and social support activities, psychotherapy, family education.Early detection and treatment are preferred in order to improve long-term performance.

The success of treatment largely depends on the patient's adherence to taking medications as directed by the doctor.

Treatment includes antipsychotic drugs, training programs and social support activities, psychotherapy, family education.

Early detection and treatment help improve long-term performance.

(See also an introduction to schizophrenia and related disorders.)


Schizophrenia is a major health problem worldwide.This disorder usually affects young people as they begin to establish their independence, and can lead to lifelong disability and stigma.Schizophrenia has been described by some as among the worst diseases of humanity, both in terms of its personal and economic cost.


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Schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population and affects men and women equally.In the United States, schizophrenics are responsible for disability compensation for one day out of every five days covered by Social Security, and are responsible for 2.5% of all health care expenses.Schizophrenia is more common than Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis.


It is often difficult to determine when schizophrenia begins, because a lack of knowledge of the symptoms can delay seeking medical care for several years.But the median age of onset is from early to mid-twenties for men, and slightly later for women.Symptoms rarely begin in childhood, but schizophrenia may begin in adolescence or later in life.


Declining social functioning can lead to substance abuse disorder, poverty and homelessness.People with untreated schizophrenia may lose contact with their families and friends and often find themselves living on the streets of large cities.This condition can last a lifetime, with poor psychosocial functioning throughout life in most cases.



Schizophrenia is more common than Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis.

Many diseases, including thyroid disorders, brain tumors, seizures, and other mental health disorders, can cause symptoms similar to those caused by schizophrenia.

Causes

The exact causes of schizophrenia are still unknown, but current research points to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.Schizophrenia is mainly caused by a biological problem (involving changes in the brain), although some external factors such as significant psychological trauma in life or drug addiction may exercise the role of trigger for the injury.


Factors that make patients prone to schizophrenia include:


Genetic predisposition

Problems that occurred before, during or after childbirth, such as the mother having the flu during the second trimester, lack of oxygen during childbirth, low birth weight, and incompatibility of the mother's blood group with the newborn's blood group

Brain infection

Cannabis use in the early teenage years

People whose parents or siblings have been diagnosed with schizophrenia have an increased risk of developing the disease, with a rate of approximately 10% compared to 1% in the general population.For real twins, one of whom was diagnosed with schizophrenia, the risk of his brother developing schizophrenia rises to 50%.These statistics indicate the role of heredity in the development of schizophrenia.


Symptoms

Schizophrenia may begin suddenly, over days or weeks, or gradually slowly, over years of time.Although the severity and types of symptoms vary for different people with schizophrenia, the symptoms are usually severe enough to interfere with the ability to work, interact with people and take care of oneself.


The symptoms may be mild at first (the sign of the disease is calledr er er).Patients may exhibit a tendency to be isolated, disorganized, or perform strange behaviors.Sometimes your doctor can identify these symptoms as the onset of schizophrenia, but other times they may not be detected until it's too late.


Schizophrenia is characterized by psychotic symptoms, which include delusions, hallucinations, confused thinking and speech, Strange and inappropriate behaviors.Psychotic symptoms include a loss of contact with reality.


Mental function declines in some schizophrenics, sometimes from the onset of the disorder.This imbalance of cognitive perception leads to difficulties in paying attention, thinking about abstract things, problem solving skills.The severity of cognitive deficits largely determines the total deficit in patients with schizophrenia.Many people with schizophrenia become unemployed and have little or no contact with family members or friends.


Symptoms may be exacerbated or triggered by stressful life events, such as losing a job or ending a romantic relationship.Drug addiction, including the use of cannabis (hashish or marijuana), may also trigger or worsen symptoms.


In general, the symptoms of schizophrenia fall into four main categories:


Positive symptoms

Negative symptoms

Lack of regulation

Cognitive impairment

Patients may have symptoms from one or all of those categories.


Positive symptoms

Positive symptoms entail deformation of habitual functions.This includes the following:


Delusions, which are false beliefs that usually involve the wrong interpretation of concepts or experiences.The patient tends to reinforce these beliefs despite clear evidence of their invalidity.There are many possible forms of delusions.For example, a schizophrenic may have delusions of persecution, believing that he is being tortured, pursued, deceived, or spied on.The patient may have illusions in the interpretation of the intentions, thinking that passages from books, newspapers, or song lyrics are intended specifically for him.The patient may have delusions of withdrawal or intellectual input, believing that others are able to read his thoughts, that his thoughts are being transmitted to others, or that his thoughts are being imposed on him by external forces.Can illusions in The context of being schizophrenic is to be absolutely bizarre or not.Strange fantasies are manifestly hard to believe, and are not derived from ordinary life experiences.For example, a patient may think that someone has removed his internal organs without leaving a scar.Non-extraneous fantasies may involve events that can occur in real life, such as a sense of persecution or unfaithfulness of the spouse.

Hallucinations involve hearing, seeing, feeling a taste, or feeling things that don't exist on the ground.Auditory hallucinations are by far the most common.The patient may hear voices in his head commenting on his behavior, or hear people talking to each other talking about general matters or criticizing and offending the patient.

Negative symptoms

Negative symptoms involve a decline or loss of normal functions.They include the following:


Decreased ability to express emotions, and this involves showing little or no emotion definitively.Immobility of the patient's face and the absence of any expression or movement in it.Absence or poor eye contact.Do not use hands or head while talking, to show some kind of emphasis or interaction with speech.Not showing any response to events or conversations that cause laughter or crying.

Speech poverty, which indicates the patient's lack of speech.The patient may answer the questions sharply, or maybe with one or two words, creating the impression of an inner emptiness.

Anhedonia إلى, refers to the patient's reduced ability to enjoy pleasant things.The patient may lose interest in the activities they used to do previously, and spend more time doing useless activities.

Asociall ol, refers to a lack of interest in building relationships with others.

Negative symptoms are often associated with a lack of motivation and motivation, a feeling of lack of purpose in life.


Lack of regulation

Disorganization includes thinking disorders and strange behaviors:


Disorder of thoughts, it refers to thinking disorientated, which is clearly expressed speech through the dispersion of speech or the transition from one subject to another without a link between them.The patient's speech may be slightly or completely confused.

Strange behaviors, the patient may engage in childish behaviors that are ridiculous, emotional, inappropriate, or dirty.Immobility catatonia is an extreme form of strange behavior, where the patient maintains a rigid posture and resists any impulses to move or, conversely, may move randomly.

Cognitive impairment

Cognitive impairment refers to difficulty concentrating, remembering, organizing, planning, and solving problems.Some patients may be unable to concentrate enough to read, follow the plot of a movie or TV show, or follow directions.Some patients may be unable to ignore distractions or focus on a specific task.Thus, you may be more likely to continue with work that involves attention to detail, complex procedures, decision-making, and an understanding of social interactions.


Suicide

5-6% of schizophrenics commit suicide, 20% attempt it, and many schizophrenics have the idea of suicide.Suicide is the leading cause of premature death among schizophrenics, and is one of the main reasons why schizophrenia reduces life expectancy by 10 years.


The risk of suicide increases in young people with schizophrenia if they have a substance use disorder.The risk of suicide is also increased in people who have depressive symptoms, feelings of despair, are unemployed, have had a psychotic episode, or have been discharged from the hospital.


The risk of suicide is greatest in patients who developed schizophrenia at a late stage of life, and who had a good life before the disease.These people feel sadness and anguish after schizophrenia.Thus, they may be more prone to despair because they are aware of the negative effects of the disease on their lives.But at the same time, the odds of recovery from schizophrenia are higher in these patients.



Violence

Contrary to popular belief, schizophrenics have only a slight increase in the risk of violent behavior.However, threats of violence and minor bouts of aggression are more common.In very few cases, severely depressed, schizophrenic patients living in isolation can attack or kill someone they consider the only source of their suffering (e.g., an authority, a celebrity, or a husband/wife).


Patients who are more likely to engage in explicit violence include:


Addiction to alcoholic beverages or recreational drugs


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